The Significance of Baptism
There are three baptisms that are significant for the new Christian. 1/ The Holy Spirit baptises us into the body of Christ when we are born again. 2/ We are baptized in water as a declaration that we are now in Christ and are identifying ourselves with Him. 3/ We are baptized with the Holy Spirit and clothed with power in order to witness for Jesus. The first one happens automatically at our new birth however the next two depend on our obediance and desire.
First of all, how important is water baptism for a believer and what is its significance?
Jesus said to His disciples, “Go into all the world, and preach the glad tidings to all the creation. He that believes and is baptised shall be saved, and he that disbelieves shall be condemned" (Mark 16:15-16 JND). Strong words indeed.
It is often pointed out, and rightly so, that it doesn’t say, ‘and he that isn’t baptized shall be condemned’, it is those who do not believe in Jesus Christ as the Son of God who takes away the sin of the world who are condemned. Eternal life is given to those who believe on Jesus Christ and nothing that we do can add to the finished work of Christ, however, baptism is to do with our walk after believing, preparing our way for our life in the millennium kingdom. Believing secures for us eternal life whilst baptism is the first step in our experience of the Christian walk. Another point to notice is that it says "He that believes and is baptised shall be saved", not "He that believes and is saved shall be baptised". Where the word “saved” is used here it is not just relating to believing and eternal live but to our present experience of God’s power to deliver from this present evil world. Not out of the world but to be kept from the evil of the world while we are here (John 17:15). In baptism we are declaring before the world that we are finished with it and now belong to Christ.
Water baptism is a command for all new believers and is their first step of obedience as a Christian. Also at the time when Jesus was on the earth John the Baptist was calling everyone to repent and to be baptized. There is a difference between John’s baptism and that which the apostles commanded. John preached ‘the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins’ (Mark 1:4) and that they should believe on Jesus (Acts 19:4), while Peter preached baptism in the Name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins (Acts 2:38).
What does ‘remission’ mean? It means, a dismissal, to forgive sins, our sins are forgiven and dismissed, our past guilt has been removed, and we are delivered from the power of sin and restored into fellowship with God. John’s baptism could only see our sins covered over until the time of the death of Christ (see Hebrews 9:15-16) but baptism in the Name of Jesus sees our sins removed far from us. When Ananias came to baptize Paul he said, “Arise, and be baptized, and wash away thy sins, calling on the Name of the Lord” (Acts 22:16). Now, the problem here is that water cannot remove our sins, Hebrews 9:22 tells us that ‘without shedding of blood is no remission’. So how does water baptism give us remission of sins? It is not so much the water, but the believing in Jesus that gives us remission of sins, and it is not being baptised into water but being baptized into the Name of Jesus that signifies our identification with Him in His death and burial. Our identification with Christ is an internal work of the Spirit, however in water baptism we are making an outward declaration that because we have died with Christ we are also buried with Him and risen with Him. If we are identified with Him in His death and burial then we shall also be identified with Him in His resurrection (see Romans 6:3-5).
We will look at the three baptisms that Christians should experience, baptism in water (where new converts are baptised in water by other believers, it is an outward act of obedience by the new believer), baptism by the Spirit (which is the Holy Spirit placing the new believer into the body of Christ therefore into union with Christ, this happens automatically at the new birth) and baptism with the Spirit (this is God baptizing the new believer with the Holy Spirit). We will look at all three and note the connection between them.
First let us look at what the word “baptize” means.
The word ‘baptize’ is a transliteration of the Greek word’ baptizo’. The meaning of baptizo is, to be dipped, or to ‘put or go under water’, ‘completely submerged’, ‘a ship that sank’, ‘sunk’, and ‘overwhelmed’. To baptize someone then is to totally immerse them. Another word closely related to baptizo is ‘bapto’ which means to be dipped or dyed.
Roger Price points out that ‘baptizo’ also means to be ‘identified with’ (study on Baptism, STS 46-7). Kenneth Wuest explains the different usages of the word and in one of the usages he says that ‘The word refers to the introduction or placing of a person or thing into a new environment or into union with something else so as to alter its condition or its relationship to its previous environment or condition’ (Word Studies in the Greek New Testament, Volume III, Vocabulary). He goes on to say that baptizo ‘symbolizes the fact of the believing sinner’s identification with Christ in His death, burial, and resurrection’ (see Romans 6:3-5).
Baptism in Water.
Water baptism is an outward declaration of an inward work of God.
All who believe on Jesus, that He is the Son of God, the Messiah, who came to save them from their sins, are called to be baptized in water.
1 Peter 3:20, tells us that in the days of Noah, eight souls were saved by water then in verse 21 we read, “The like figure whereunto even baptism doth also now save us (not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience towards God,) by the resurrection of Jesus Christ”. Here Peter is showing how the waters of the flood which saved Noah and his family, are a type of the waters of baptism saving believers, but he goes on to point out that the waters of baptism are themselves also a type of the reality of salvation.
Kenneth Wuest gives an excellent exposition of these verses in his study of 1 Peter where he says, “Water baptism is the outward testimony of the believer’s inward faith. The person is saved the moment he places his faith in the Lord Jesus. Water baptism is his visible testimony to his faith and the salvation he was given in answer to that faith”. Wuest goes on to say that Peter is not talking about baptismal regeneration (A person who submits to baptism is regenerated when they first believed) because “Baptism, Peter explains, does not wash away the filth of the flesh, either in a literal sense as a bath for the body, nor in a metaphorical sense as a cleansing for the soul”. “But he defines what he means by salvation in the words ‘the answer of a good conscience towards God’” (Word Studies in the Greek New Testament, Volume II, 1 Peter).
In baptism we are witnessing that because we have died with Christ, we are also buried with Him in baptism and also identified with Him in His resurrection. A completely new beginning with a clean conscience (a bad conscience will affect our fellowship with the Father).
When we are baptized we are witnessing that we are done with our old life and now have a new life in Christ. We have died to our old life in Adam, we have been buried with Christ in baptism and now we are begotten of God and given a new life by the resurrection of Jesus Christ (see 1 Peter 1:3). We are reconciled to God by the death of His Son, much more, being reconciled, we shall be saved by His life (Romans 5:10), that is, His resurrection life working within us by His Spirit.
If water baptism is a type of our salvation then into what name should we be baptized? The bible tells us that “there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved” (Acts 4:12). What is this name then, whereby we must be saved? Verse 10 tells us, “by the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth”.
Baptism in “The Name”
W. E. Vine tells us that, “The baptized person was closely bound to, or became the property of, the one into whose name he was baptized” (Expository Dictionary of Bible Words, Baptism, W. E. Vine). The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology, Abridged Edition, says, “Baptism requires repentance (Acts 2:38) and was ministered ‘in the name of Jesus Christ,’ i.e., in relation to Jesus Christ and with the use of his name, so that the baptized called on the name of Christ (Acts 22:16), even as the name was called over them, signifying to whom they belonged (cf. Jas. 2:7).” Jesus Christ Himself said that we belong to him (Mark 9: 41). The Apostle Paul tells us that we are Christ’s, and that we are the Lord’s (1 Corinthians 3:23, Romans 14:8, 2 Corinthians 10:7, Galatians 3:29). Baptism then is in the Name of the Lord Jesus Christ. Sometimes people make an issue about the exact wording of the Name to be baptized in, the important Name is “Yeshua” (“Jesus” in English) The words “Lord” and “Christ” are important additions to distinguish Him as the Lord God, the anointed Messiah. When Peter commanded that Cornelius and his household be baptized in the Name of the Lord (Acts 10:48) there is no contradiction, the Name of the Lord is Yeshua Christ, Lord is His title and there is only one Lord as far as Peter is concerned and that is Jesus Christ. When the word “Christ” is used on its own it is still talking about Christ Jesus.
Acts 10:43 (JND) tells us that ‘every one that believes on Him (Jesus) will receive, through His Name, remission of sins’. We receive forgiveness by believing on Jesus and baptism into the Name of Jesus signifies our identification with Him in His death, burial and resurrection.
The apostle Paul told the Corinthian Christians, who were following men, that he did not baptise them into his own personal name, in fact, apart from one or two, he didn’t baptize anyone and he is glad he didn’t because now no one can say that he baptized them into his own name (see 1 Corinthians 1:11-17).
So we see that the name is very important, the name represents the person and who they are and what they have done. Jesus is the Saviour which He accomplished by His death on the cross.
In Matthew 28:19 (NKJV), Jesus told His disciples to baptize ‘in the Name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit’. The Apostles understood that the “Name” was the New Covenant Name of God and so Peter, ten days after the Lord’s commission, called for everyone to repent and be baptized in the “Name” of Jesus Christ, not the names of the titles Father, Son and Holy Spirit. We have one command in the bible, which was given by Jesus, to baptize in the Name (not names) of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit then immediately afterwards we have the age of the Acts of the Holy Spirit through the Apostles where baptism was carried out in the Name of Jesus Christ. Is there a conflict then between what Jesus said and what the disciples did? (For a more in depth study on this subject see my article “The Name”)
First let us understand that when names were given in Bible times it had a specific purpose to describe something about the child or person. God Himself told us what His Name was. In the Old Testament God said His Name was YHWH. Now the problem is that we don’t know the correct pronunciation of God’s Name because the Hebrews didn’t use vowels. The old English pronunciation is ‘Jehovah’ but many today opt for ‘Yahweh’, so here we will use the Name Yahweh with the understanding that it may not be the correct pronunciation.
Exodus 3:15 says, ‘And God said moreover unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: Yahweh, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you: this is my name for ever, and this is my memorial unto all generations”.
Isaiah 42:8 quotes God as saying, ‘I am Yahweh: that is my Name.’
Isaiah 43:11 says, ‘I am Yahweh; and besides me there is no saviour.’
Isaiah 47:4 says, ‘Our Redeemer, Yahweh of hosts is His name, the Holy One of Israel.’
Acts 4:12 (JND) says, ‘And salvation is in none other (than Jesus), for neither is there another name under heaven which is given among men by which we must be saved’ (words in brackets mine).
There are many more scriptures showing that the Children of Israel knew that the name of God was YHWH. When God gave His Name He added to it that which would clarify some part of His character, or who He was, specifically that part of His character which was applicable at that time.
We have Yahweh Jireh – the Lord our Provider (Genesis 22:14), Yahweh Raphah – the Lord our Healer (Exodus 15:26), Yahweh Nissi – the Lord our Banner (Exodus 17:15), Yahweh Shalom – the Lord our Peace (Judges 6:24), etc.
The Name Jesus means ‘Yahweh Saviour’; it is God’s Name, given to the Son specifically for the remission of our sins (Matthew 1:21, John 17:11). Jesus came to save us from our sins. So to be baptized into the name of God for the remission of our sins is to be baptized into the Name of Jesus (Yahweh Saviour). It is not so much that we are baptized in water but rather that we are baptized into a Name. We ‘receive remission of sins’ ‘through His Name’ (Acts 10:43). Water is what we use to wash away the dirt from our body and by water baptism we are declaring that the sins of the flesh have been washed away by faith in Jesus’ Name.
So we can see that there is no conflict between The Lord’s command and what the disciples actually did. However there is a lot of conflict between Christians concerning the mode and what is called the formula. When Jesus told His disciples to baptize in the Name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit and when the disciples baptized in the Name of Jesus it was not a conflict but a revelation. However today, some baptize in the formula (Father, Son and Holy Spirit), while others baptize in a Name. (There are still others that believe that the Name of Jesus is to be used now but the formula is to be used in the tribulation period (Roger Price study on Baptism, STS 46-7)).
Baptism of Infants and Sprinkling
The mode of baptism is full immersion however some insist on sprinkling which isn’t scriptural as far as water baptism goes. Infant baptism is not scriptural as such because a person needs to believe and be baptized however some say that when the head of a household believed on Jesus then everyone in the house, including children, were baptized. This is possibly true, but at what age can a child understand what is being done? It is possible babies were dedicated to the Lord by water and in faith that the child would belong to the Lord as it grew and understood the gospel. When a child reaches the age of understanding the gospel then they should follow the Lord through the waters of baptism by their own choice. I can understand the concern by Christian parents for their children, in the early church water baptism was taken very seriously, so much so that some were being baptized for the dead. Paul mentions this in passing but doesn’t comment on it (see 1 Corinthians 15:29).
Baptism by the Holy Spirit.
The next baptism we are to look at is baptism by the Spirit. This is very closely linked to water baptism. Water baptism is an outward declaration of our identification with Christ. Baptism by the Spirit, not to be confused with baptism with the Spirit, is the placing of the new believer into the body of Christ by the Holy Spirit (which, as I have said, takes place automatically when a person is born again). In other words it is the reality of our identification with Christ in His death, burial and resurrection.
1 Corinthians 12:13 says, “For by one Spirit we are all baptized into one body ---”. Verse 27 says, “Now ye are the body of Christ, and members in particular”.
Galatians 3:27 says, “For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ”.
Christians are those who are “in Christ” This is a common expression in Paul’s epistles that we are “in Christ”, Romans 8:1 says, “There is therefore now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus. ---”
Romans chapter 6 speaks of our identification with Christ in His death, burial and resurrection which the baptism by the Spirit into the body of Christ brings us into the reality of whilst water baptism is an outward witness of that reality. By being placed into the body of Christ by the Holy Spirit we are one with Christ. We have been crucified with Christ, buried with Him and raised up with Him, all by the power of the Holy Spirit.
Baptism with the Holy Spirit.
The third baptism we need to look at is the baptism with the Holy
Spirit. What do we mean “baptism with
the Holy Spirit”? Baptism by the Spirit
is the Spirit baptizing us into the body of Christ; baptism with the Holy
Spirit is different, because it is God baptizing us with the Holy Spirit. Where water baptism is our witness to every
one of our new life in Christ, baptism with the Spirit is God’s witness to us
of our new life in Christ. Water
baptism and the baptism with the Holy Spirit are very closely linked
(see Acts 2:38). Water baptism also "symbolizes the effusion
(outpouring) of the Holy Spirit" (The Expositor's Bible Commentary,
Volume 11, page 27). Some say that the receiving of God's Spirit
happens automatically when we first believe in Jesus, well we do
receive eternal life when we believed on Jesus but this is more
than that, it is the Spirit coming upon us and overwhelming us, filling
to overflowing, revealing to us the very presence of God as a small
what is to come (Ephesians 1:14). It is an assurance from God that we
accepted in the beloved and that we have a wonderful inheritance ahead
(Romans 8:16-17). We are sealed with the
Holy Spirit of promise at this time (Ephesians 1:13). It is also a time when we receive power to
witness for Christ (Acts 1:8).
This wonderful experience is a gift for all Christians however the
significance of it seems to be lost today. When the Samaritans
received the gospel Peter and John came from Jerusalem to make sure
they received the gift of the Holy Spirit (Acts 8:14-17). When Paul met the
Ephesian believers (Acts 19:1-6) he didn't treat the gift of the Spirit as something
non-essential, it was central to salvation as far as he was concerned
(they had eternal life but they needed the power to live that life in
the here and now).
When Christ was risen from the dead He breathed into His disciples the Holy Spirit saying unto them, “Receive at once the Holy Spirit” (John 20:22, The New Testament: An Expanded Translation by Kenneth S. Wuest), but He also told them to wait for the promise of the Father (the baptism with the Holy Spirit) as they would receive power to be His witnesses after that the Holy Spirit had come upon them (Acts 1:4-8). I think these two instances are related and the new believer should be encouraged to receive at once, by faith, the Holy Spirit, but also to expect a follow up from God of the manifestation of the Spirit upon them.
The question arises that if new believers received the Spirit by the
laying on of hands, does this mean that all believers who have not had
hands laid upon them to receive the Spirit do not have the Spirit
within them? The answer is "No". In the Bible when Peter
went to witness to Cornelius he had no intention of baptizing them in
water nor of laying hands on them to receive the Spirit, this was
because of his preconceived ideas and possibly because of the fear of
knew that Peter would have problems here so, in His grace, He bypassed Peter and
poured the Spirit out
upon the household of Cornelius with manifestations following in order
to convince Peter
that they had received the Holy Spirit. I believe when church
leaders change God's order of things because of preconceived ideas, or
the fear of man, or a rejection
of the manifestation of the gifts of the Spirit, and they refuse to
baptize in water or lay hands on new converts for them to
receive the Holy Spirit, then God will bypass them and give His Spirit
new believers directly, however God wants to work through the saints in
ministering the Holy Spirit to new converts so the church needs to get
its act together. Although these new Christians have the Spirit
within them they have not had the Spirit fall upon them and lack the manifestation of the Spirit and
therefore fall short of ministering to their full potential. I
should seek for the Spirit coming upon them in order to live their
in the power of God.
John the Baptist said, “I indeed have baptized you with water: but He shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost” (Mark 1:8). Here John was likening what he was doing in immersing people completely in water to what Jesus would do in immersing His disciples in the Holy Spirit. Baptism with the Holy Spirit is when believers are overwhelmed with the Spirit when the Spirit falls upon them. Jesus Himself also likened being baptized with water to being baptized with the Spirit (Acts 1:5). As water came upon those being baptized and covered them so too would the Holy Spirit come upon the believers (Acts 1:8). When Philip preached to the Samaritans and baptized them it says that the Holy Spirit was fallen upon none of them yet until Peter and John ‘prayed for them that they might receive the Holy Spirit’ and ‘laid their hands on them’ (Acts 8:15-17).
The baptism with the Spirit is seen by the disciples as the Holy Spirit falling upon believers. When Peter preached to Cornelius the Holy Spirit “fell on all them which heard the word” (Acts 10:44), and it was the same when Paul ministered to the Ephesians, “the Holy Spirit came on them” (Acts 19:6). So we see that when the disciples received the Spirit it was accompanied by manifestations of the Spirit and receiving power for service (this is to do with our works). When the Spirit comes upon them they are anointed for service and also filled with the Spirit as the Spirit gives them utterance in praise and adoration to God.
When someone is said to be filled with the Spirit it is usually an expression to show that their fullness with the Spirit is overflowing out through them in ministry. This not only happens at their initial anointing with the Spirit but also at other times when their fullness overflows. I have several times seen when someone who is already baptized with the Spirit will suddenly be filled to overflowing as they are praying or worshipping and from their innermost being the Holy Spirit flows out through their mouth as rivers of living water affecting all those in the meeting with the holy presence of God, all who are right with God are quickened in their spirit, some who are not right with God want to get as far away as they can from the meeting! This is not praying ‘with the spirit’, which is praying in tongues, but praying ‘in the Spirit’ which is praying in the known language by the unction of the Spirit. This same anointing that falls on a person at their baptism now resides in them and ministers through them when appropriate (see 1 John 2:27).
Baptism in the Holy Spirit is our identification with Christ in His resurrection. Where water baptism is our witness that we have died and been buried with Christ the Holy Spirit is God’s gift to us that we might be witnesses to His resurrection. The apostle Paul said, “For if we have been planted together in the likeness of His death, we shall be also in the likeness of His resurrection” (Romans 6:5).
On the day of Pentecost, Peter linked baptism in water with the promise of receiving the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit is essential for expressing the new life we have in our Christian walk. When we are baptised in water we can expect to receive the Holy Spirit as we are ministered to with the laying on of hands (see Acts 1:4-8, 2:38-39, 19:2-6).
Peter said, on the day of Pentecost, “Repent, be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost” (Acts 2:38).
In Acts 19:1-3, when Paul came to Ephesus he found certain disciples and asked them, “Have you received the Holy Ghost since you believed? And they said unto him, we have not so much as heard whether there be any Holy Ghost, and he said unto them, Unto what then were you baptized?” This is a very interesting dialogue between Paul and the disciples. Paul has found this group of disciples whom he presumes are believers in Jesus Christ and already have the gift of eternal life; the question he asks them is, if, having believed on Jesus, they had received the Holy Spirit? Paul is assuming that it is possible that these believers might not have been baptized in the Holy Spirit as yet. When he got the answer that they didn’t know about the Holy Spirit, he was amazed and asked them unto what they were baptized. The position Paul is coming from is first that it is possible to believe on Jesus (and therefore be saved) and yet not have received the baptism in the Holy Spirit and secondly that when they were baptized in water they should have been instructed in receiving the Holy Spirit. Both water baptism and the baptism with the Spirit should be ministered to the Christian as soon as possible after they have believed on Jesus. When we are baptized in the Holy Spirit it is not that we have now achieved everything there is to achieve, rather it is the start of a whole new walk with God.
When once we have been filled with the Spirit it is important to continually stir up the gift within us (2 Timothy 1:6) otherwise we will find ourselves dry spiritually.
When we receive the Holy Spirit we also receive gifts for ministry. The basic gift that is given to every Christian when they receive the Holy Spirit is the gift of speaking in tongues. This is so important for the Christian because praying with the spirit (that is praying in tongues) is exercising and edifying the spirit. Also to intercede for others is easier with the gift of tongues as the Holy Spirit can pray through us in intercession. We don’t know how we should pray for others but the Spirit does. The gift of tongues will often need to be exercised in faith but some Christians who have received the Holy Spirit will not step out in faith and pray in tongues for fear of it being self rather than the Spirit, what they don’t realise is that they are praying with their spirit in faith and the Holy Spirit responds to our faith and joins with our spirit in a fuller expression of glorifying God or interceding for others (a small “s” is used to denote our own spirit rather than the Holy Spirit). Where a message in tongues is given for the edification of the church then it must be accompanied by the gift of interpretation of tongues and the persons exercising the gift of tongues or interpretation in the church should be speaking out under the unction of the Holy Spirit and not just by the spirit in faith. If a person is baptized with the Spirit but does not exercise the gift of speaking in tongues, they will still, I believe, have power to witness for Jesus Christ but they are missing out on what God has given for our spirit’s edification and up-building.
The Bible tells us that after we have received the Spirit, we need to be continually filled with the Spirit, it is something we should exercise by speaking to ourselves in Psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in our hearts to the Lord; giving thanks always for all things unto God and the Father in the Name of our Lord Jesus Christ (see Ephesians 5:18-20). Christians are people who live in the Spirit, walk in the Spirit and are led by the Spirit (Galatians 5:16, 25, Romans 8:14) so it is important we are built up in the spirit. Finally the Holy Spirit is also called the Spirit of Truth (John 14:7, 15:26, 16:13), and when He is come He will reveal the Truth to us (1 John 2:27). An interesting thing here is that Christians whose doctrine hasn’t been sound, after receiving the Spirit will start to believe and follow sound doctrine.
How do you receive the Holy Spirit?
It is normal (but not always necessary) to have mature, Spirit
filled Christians to lay hands on the ones wanting to receive the
Spirit (see Acts 8:17)
No one can say what manifestation a person will experience when hands are laid on them to receive the Holy Spirit. It could be a gentle touch of the love of God causing an overflow of praise and worship or it could be a loud response as one is filled with the Holy Spirit, causing them to speak aloud in tongues or prophecy.
Let us look at some scriptures to understand what attitude we should have. Luke 11:9, says, “And I say unto you, Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock and it shall be opened unto you”. Verse 13 says, “If ye then, being evil, know how to give good gifts unto your children: how much more shall your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to them that ask Him?” In John 7:37-39, Jesus says that if anyone is thirsty let him come to Him and drink and that out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water, meaning the Holy Spirit which would be given after He was glorified.
So we need to ask and we need to be thirsty, what else is necessary? We need to receive by faith. Galatians 3:2 says, “This only would I learn of you, Received ye the Spirit by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith?” Paul then goes on to say that it is by the hearing of faith that we receive the Spirit.
As long as there is a desire and request and expectation, God will not deny the Holy Spirit to His children. Receive the Spirit with thanksgiving and speak by faith in tongues trusting the Spirit to give utterance of praise and worship to God.
© Mark Greenwood
Unless otherwise stated, all Scripture quotations are from the Authorized Version of the Bible (AV). Extracts from the Authorized Version of the Bible (the King James Version), the rights in which are vested in the Crown, are reproduced by permission of the Crown’s Patentee, Cambridge University Press.
JND A New Translation from the Original Languages by John Nelson Darby 1867, 1884 & 1890
NKJV The New King James Version Copyright © 1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved.
The audio study by Roger Price on ‘Baptism’ (code STS 46-47) is available from ccftapes.co.uk.
Kenneth S. Wuest Word Studies in the Greek New Testament, Volumes II & III
The New Testament: An Expanded Translation
W E Vine Expository Dictionary of Bible Words
Verlyn D. Verbrugge Editor. New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology, Abridged Edition.
My thanks to Keith Cline for all his hard work, help, advice and encouragement.